Top Brand Architecture Models: Which One is Right For You
What Are Brand Architecture Models?
Brand architecture is a fundamental element of every strong brand. It refers to a client-facing, organisational strategy applied to brands in order to coordinate a brand portfolio, maximise brand equity and market share, and support new launches or struggling brands.
Brand architecture is largely attributed to the work of Dr. David Aaker, who coined house of brands, branded house, and hybrid architecture models.
There are four main brand architecture models, all with unique advantages:
- House of brands
- Branded house
Each model will highlight the links between brands in different ways and offer brands varying levels of freedom concerning marketing and brand development. Brand architecture models establish a hierarchy that can explicitly influence consumer loyalty and brand awareness. This can be beneficial for brands that want to profit from the association with a strong parent brand. However, this can work against a brand, too. Negative press for a parent brand may also bring trouble for sub-brands.
Advantages of Using Brand Architecture Models
A good brand architecture model can:
- make branding and marketing efforts more cost-effective
- offer a workable framework for marketers
- make decision-making on new products or expansion into new market segments simpler
- give target audiences greater clarity when interacting with brands and increase both awareness and loyalty
- help stakeholders to understand your brand and products
- streamline changes as the business develops
- increase brand equity
Brand architecture can also minimise damage in the case of adverse events that can topple more unsteady brands. Certain brand architecture models can isolate damage to one brand in the portfolio, while others are more vulnerable to widespread damage if a corporate brand finds its reputation damaged.
In terms of revenue, brand architecture can organise and consolidate a company’s brand portfolio, allowing it to effectively cross-sell products and services so that, when one brand thrives, all other brands can profit.
4 Types of Brand Architecture
1. House of Brands
The House of Brands architecture model involves one parent brand that owns a varied portfolio of individual brands. These brands may operate in similar industries to each other, as seen with Procter & Gamble, or they may vary widely, as with Unilever. Each brand owned by the parent brand (also called an umbrella brand) will be distinct in its own way, and will have its own branding, marketing, and promotional rules.
The House of Brands model is beneficial in that it offers companies the chance to take up more market share by owning multiple brands in the same category.
The House of Brands model also protects brands against a downturn in business, or consumer backlash. If one brand in their portfolio falls on hard times, it may not affect the others.
Consumers may not be aware of the parent company that owns all of these individual brands. When they are, it can help brands owned by the company to draw on its heritage, popularity, and expertise to attract consumers and drive sales.
3 examples of House of Brands:
- Procter & Gamble
- General Motors
2. Branded House
Unlike a House of Brands, consumers are always aware of the master brand in a Branded House. There is complete synergy between each brand in the company’s portfolio.
The master brand owns a range of sub-brands that all use its logo or brand name in their respective product names, such as iPad, iPhone, or Apple TV+, which in this example, are owned by their monolithic parent company, Apple.
These sub-brands act as brand extensions to the master brand. As such, a Branded House approach can be a cost-effective brand architecture model that allows sub-brands to use the same branding and marketing strategies as the master brand.
This type of brand architecture model helps the master brand, in this case Apple, build brand equity and expand its market share. Consumers may be attracted to a simplified buying experience with a Branded House model, as they know the master brand identity and its brand promise will apply to all of its sub-brands and their products.
3. Hybrid Brand
The Hybrid Brand model lies in between the House of Brands and Branded House model. A Hybrid Brand model can rise out of an acquisition or a merger.
Some brands in the Hybrid Brand model will be more strongly associated with the parent company than others. For instance, Coke, Diet Coke and Coke Zero all have very strong links to their parent company, Coca-Cola. However, other brands in the Coca-Cola portfolio include Costa Coffee, Innocent Drinks, Appletiser, and more, which all stand as distinct brands from Coca-Cola.
The benefits of a Hybrid Brand architecture model include all of the benefits for the Branded House and House of Brands model – and more.
For instance, a struggling brand can benefit hugely by being included in a parent company’s brand portfolio, and existing brands in the portfolio can enjoy the perks of increased brand awareness and a stronger position in the market by associating with the parent brand.
Additionally, brands have the freedom to develop their individual branding and marketing to suit their product.
3 examples of hybrid brand architecture:
4. Endorsed Brand
The endorsed brand architecture model helps new brands enter the market with an advantage: the opportunity to grow with the support of the parent company’s (also known as an endorser brand’s) brand equity and reputation. It also allows these brands the freedom to develop their branding and marketing strategies independently, meaning they will remain a distinct brand, but will always have the support of the parent brand.
Brand management can be more difficult in the Endorsed Brand model, as all brands, while remaining independent, have to align with the parent company’s values and brand promises. With a more convoluted brand management set-up, market decisions can take longer.
How to Choose Your Brand Architecture Model
To understand which brand architecture model would suit your organisation best, it’s necessary to ask several essential questions about your current operation.
Consider which markets your products and services target, how healthy your current market share is, and which market areas you might be able to expand into in the future.
You should also think about how many individual products or services you offer; you may not need unique branding for each product or service, and could streamline your branding and marketing by opting for the branded house model, for instance.
The relationship between your brands can also be important. If you’re embarking on a completely new brand venture, you may be at risk of alienating or confusing your audience. The endorser brand model may be suitable to best manage your audience in this case.
Whichever model you choose, it should always work to add value to your brands.
Brand Architecture Strategy with Studio Noel
If you’re new to brand architecture, our teams have the insight you need to help you analyse your current place in the market and identify the right brand architecture model for you.
If your business has evolved over time and the brand architecture that worked at the start of your journey is no longer suitable, or the brands you have acquired need an extra push, our brand strategy expertise will help you review, reorganise, and refresh your portfolio to secure you success for years to come.